Historical reference

Ever since the ancient times, gold and silver artifacts have been objects of special respect because they were used as measures of value and means of exchange and later directly as money. Vessels for religious ceremonies, as well as other objects of everyday use and jewelry used by sovereigns and high dignitaries were made of gold and silver.

In the Ancient World, the Middle Ages as well as in the Modern Age, gold, silver and other precious metals have had an enormous significance in the development of the individual as well as of the whole nations and states. The money that was mainly made of gold and silver and the monetary system itself were of exceptional significance for each nation and each state.

The awareness of the need for protection of the individual (customer) from the possible fraud in view of the need for measuring was present already in the Middle Ages because it was the matter of valuable articles (jewelry) and money, with a big possibility of cheating of the customer. Due to that fact, already at the beginning of the 13th century the need arose for legal regulation of the field of testing and branding of gold and silver jewelry in some European states, for example England, France, German states, Austria and some others.

The beginning of branding in England dates from the 13th century when the goldsmiths used to brand their articles themselves. Already in the year 1327, branding of gold and silver articles became obligatory and the articles bore a brand in the shape of leopard's head.

In the Croatian territory in the 14th century, or better put in the territory of the Austrian Empire (at that time Croatia was part of the Austrian Empire), the beginning of branding was connected with the year 1366, when the Austrian Archdukes Albrecht and Leopold issued the first patent (law) according to which all the goldsmiths in the area of upper and lower Austria had to rule so that the customer would not suffer any loss. The abovementioned patent (law) was amended later, during the reign of Maximilian, Rudolf, Ferdinand II, Maria Theresa, Franz Josef and others.



Form of brands in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy after 1896